Making up missed Rakats in congregation

When a person joins the Jamaat late, he must consider whether he has caught the current Rakat and how many Rakats he needs to make up. The one who joins late is known as Masbooq.

Abdullah Ibn Umar said: “If you catch the Imam whilst bowing and bow (with him) before he raises his head, then you have caught the cycle of the prayer (rak’a). If he raises his head whilst you are bowing, then you have missed the cycle of the prayer (rak’a).” [al-Bayhaqi]

According to the above narration, Hanafi scholars conclude if one joins the prayer whilst the Imam is standing (Qiyaam) or bowing (Ruku’), then he has caught the Rakat. If he joins after the Ruku’, then he has missed the Rakat, and he must make up the Rakat by repeating it. One must make up that particular Rakah’, for example, if one misses the first Rakat then when he makes it up he must recite the additional surah however he continues the sequence of the Imam. If he had done Rakat with the imam, then the next Rakat he is making up, he will treat it as his second.

Method of Joining the Group Prayer as a Latecomer

  1. One makes the opening takbir whilst standing, the Takbir al-Ula
  2. Then he stands in Qiyaam for the suration of a single ‘Subhanna Rabiyyal Azeem’
  3. He then moves to the position in which the Imam is in
  4. He will bear in mind whether he join before or after the Ruku’ i.e. whether he has caught or missed the Rakat’
  5. He continues the prayer with the Imam all the way till the end. He recites only the Tashahhud. When the Imam gives one Salam1 then he rises and makes up the missed Rakat2 and in his final sitting will read the tashahud, darood and dua.3

Detailed Guidance on making up the missed Rakats.

Fajr 2 rakat

  1. I joined in the first Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You have caught the Rakat. Finish the prayer with the Imam
  2. I joined in the first Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  3. I joined in the second Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first Rakat but caught the second one. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  4. I joined in the second Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first and second Rakat. Make up the full salah as you normally would.

Zuhr, Asr and Isha 4 rakat

  1. I joined in the first Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You have caught the Rakat. Finish the prayer with the Imam
  2. I joined in the first Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  3. I joined in the second Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first Rakat but caught the second one. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  4. I joined in the second Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first and second Rakat. Make up the first and second Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer in the second Rakat with tashahhud.
  5. I joined in the third Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first and second Rakat but caught the third one. Make up the first and second Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  6. I joined in the third Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first, second and third Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and do tashahhud then rise for the second rakah and recite a surah and then dont make tashahud, but rise for the third rakah, complete without reciting an additional surah then finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  7. I joined in the fourth Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first, second and third Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and do tashahhud then rise for the second rakah and recite a surah and then dont make tashahud, but rise for the third rakah, complete without reciting an additional surah then finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  8. I joined in the fourth Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed all rakats. Make them all up as if you were praying on your own.

Maghrib 3 rakat

  1. I joined in the first Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You have caught the Rakat. Finish the prayer with the Imam
  2. I joined in the first Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  3. I joined in the second Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first Rakat but caught the second one. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  4. I joined in the second Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first and second Rakat. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and make tashahhud then rise for the second rakat and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  5. I joined in the third Rakat before the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed the first and second Rakat but caught the third one. Make up the first Rakat with an additional surah and make tashahhud then rise for the second rakat and finish off the prayer with tashahhud.
  6. I joined in the third Rakat after the Imam went into Ruku
    • You missed all rakats. Make them all up as if you were praying on your own.

  1. If the masbooq by mistake does salam after the Imam’s salam then sajdah sahwe will be necessary ↩︎
  2. When the latecomer stands back up to read his missed Rakaats, he should read Thana, Ta’awuz and Tasmia first. ↩︎
  3. If the latecomer performs Salam forgetfully after the Imam has performed Salam or has read Darood or Dua in the Tasha-hud, he must perform Sajda Sahv in his last sitting. ↩︎

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