Opinion on Abu Tālib

Much is discussed around the imān of Abu Tālib by sound 1 scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’. Both have strong evidences for their positions and in this post, I’ll lay out both sides of the argument.

Brief background of Abu Tālib

Abu Tālib ibn Abd al-Muttalib was the uncle of the Prophet ﷺ. He raised the Prophet ﷺ from the age of 8 when the Prophet’s ﷺ grandfather Abd al-Muttalib died. The Prophet ﷺ was very close to him and they both loved each other a lot. He was also the father of the 4th caliph Hadhrat Ali رضي الله عنه‎. When Abu Tālib saw poverty, the Prophet ﷺ offered to take care of his child Ali and his uncle Al-Abbas took care of Jafār رضی اللہ عنھم.

Abu Tālib, as the leader of Banu Hāshim, supported the Prophet ﷺ when he announced his Prophecy. He made sure none of the other tribes or clans harmed him or even worse killed him, including the Prophets ﷺ uncle, Abu Lahab.

Abu Tālib died in 619AD, when the Prophet ﷺ was approximately 50 years old. In the same year Hadhrat Khadija رضی اللہ عنھا died also 2. This was shortly after the boycott was lifted. During this boycott the Muslims lived on the outskirts on Mecca and were supported by Abu Tālib. Abu Tālib died in his house where the Prophet ﷺ  and many of the tribal/Clan leaders were present.

Before Abu Tālib died, the Prophet ﷺ asked him to pronounce the Shahadah, but he was being dissuaded from saying the Shahadah by the Quraysh. In yet another variation of Abu Tālib death, his brother, Al-‘Abbās رضي الله عنه‎, who was sitting next to Abu Tālib as he died, saw Abu Tālib moving his lips. Al-‘Abbās claimed that Abu Tālib had said the shahada but the Prophet ﷺ replied that he had not heard it.

The true level of protection provided by Abu Tālib was felt when he left the world. The Prophet ﷺ and his followers faced incredible persecution. The Prophet ﷺ is quoted as exclaiming, “By God, Quraysh never harmed me so much as after the death of Abu Tālib.” After this, the Muslims relocated to Abyssinia and then to Medina in order to escape persecution by the Quraysh.

The faith of Abu Tālib has been discussed by many scholars over the years. We’ll present both sides of the argument here.

Abu Tālib died without having Imaan

The majority of scholars agree that Abu Tālib, the uncle of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, took care of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and dearly loved him more than his own children. However, although he was close to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, he did not accept Islam and thus died as a kāfir. This is the belief of the majority of the scholars of the Ahl al-Sunnah and is proven from the verses of the Qur’an and authentic Ahadith.

Allah says in the Qur’an:

Indeed it is not such that you can guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills; and He well knows the people upon guidance. 

Qur’an 28:56

It is the consensus of the exegetes [mufasireen] that this verse was revealed regarding Abu Tālib, e.g. Baghawi and Nasafi. Imam Nawawi in his Sharh Muslim wrote similar to this. The Hadith mentions the reason of revelation of the aforementioned verse [28:56].

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said to his uncle at the time of his death, ‘say, there is none worthy of worship but Allah and I will bear testimony for you on the Day of Reckoning’. He (Abu Tālib) said, ‘Were it not the fear of the Quraysh blaming me, saying that it was the anxiety of (approaching death) that induced me to do so, I would have certainly delighted your eyes.’ It was then that Allah revealed, ‘Indeed it is not such that you can guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills.’ [Qur’an 28:56] [Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Iman]

In another verse of the Qur’an, Allah says:

It is not for the Prophet and those who believe, to pray for the forgiveness of polytheists even if they were their relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the people of hell.

Qur’an 9:113

Nasafi says, “The Messenger of Allah intended to ask for the forgiveness of Abu Tālib, so this verse was revealed that ‘it is not for the Prophet’.” And Suyuti says, “It was revealed because of the Messenger of Allah’s asking for forgiveness for his uncle, Abu Tālib.”

The hadith in full:

Sa’eed bin al-Musaiyab narrated, “When Abu Tālibm was on his death bed, the Messenger of Allah came to him and found with him – Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Ummayya bin al-Mughira. The Messenger of Allah said, “O uncle! Say, none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, a sentence with which I will defend you before Allah.” On that Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Ummayya said to Abu Tālib, “Will you now leave the religion of Abdul Muttalib?” The Messenger of Allah kept on inviting him to say that sentence while the other two kept on repeating their sentence before him till Abu Tālib said as the last thing he said to them, “I am on the religion of ‘Abdul Muttalib.” and refused to say, None has the right to be worshipped except Allah. On that the Messenger of Allah said, “By Allah, I will keep on asking Allah’s forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden (by Allah) to do so.” So Allah revealed, “It is not for the Prophet and those who believe, to pray for the forgiveness of polytheists even if they were their relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the people of hell.” [Qur’an 9:113] And then Allah specifically revealed about Abu Tālib “Indeed it is not such that you can guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills.” [Qur’an 28:56] [Sahih Bukhari: Kitab al-Janaiz, Kitab al-Manaqib, Kitab al-Tafseer – Surah al-Bara’ah and Surah al-Qasas, Sahih Muslim: Kitab al-Iman, Sunan al-Nasa’i: Kitab al-Janaiz].

In another verse, Allah says:

And they stop [others] from him (the Messenger of Allah) and run away from him; and they ruin none except themselves, and they do not have sense.”

Qur’an 6:26

It is stated in Tafsir al-Baghawi, “Ibn Abbas and Maqatil said that this verse was revealed regarding Abu Tālib. He would prohibit and prevent others from hurting the Prophet ﷺ , yet he himself stayed far from bringing faith in the Prophet ﷺ .” Similar is stated in al-Durr al-Manthur.

Further, al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir (for verses 6:26 and 9:53) and Ibn al-Subki in Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra (1:91-94) hold that Sayyiduna ‘Ali himself said that Abu Bakr is the only Sahabi to have both parents – Abu Quhafa and Umm al-Khayr – enter Islam. 

Sayyiduna Ali narrated, “I said to the Messenger of Allah, O Messenger of Allah! Your uncle, the old and the misguided has died. The Messenger of Allah said, go and bury him.” [Nasb al-Rayah, Sunan Abu Daud, Ahmad, al-Sunan al-Kubra].

The version of Ibn Abi Shaybah is, Sayyiduna Ali narrated, “Your uncle, the old kafir has died, what is your view? (i.e. what should be done). The Messenger of Allah said, wash him and bury him.” [al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah]. The version of Imam Shafa’i adds after the words ‘wash him and bury him’, “I (Sayyiduna Ali) said, O Messenger of Allah! He died as a Mushrik [polytheist]. The Messenger of Allah said, go and bury him.” [Nasb al-Rayah]

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ did not object to Sayyiduna Ali when he used the terms ‘kafir’, ‘mushrik’ or ‘misguided’ for his own father, Abu Tālib. Neither did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ order Sayyiduna Ali to conduct the Janazah prayer nor did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ conduct the Janazah prayer himself. If Abu Tālib died as a Muslim, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ would have ordered or conducted the Janazah prayer like he did for the wife of Abu Tālib, Fatimah bint Asad, who left this world as a Muslim.

Al-Imam al-A’zam states in al-Fiqh al-Akbar, “His [the Messenger of Allah’s] uncle, Abu Tālib died a kafir.” Mullah Al-Qari in his Sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar states “As for Abu Tālib, the report of his conversion to Islam is inauthentic.”

When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ proclaimed Prophethood, four uncles were alive; Sayyiduna Hamzah, Sayyiduna Abbas, Abu Tālib and Abu Lahb. The scholars agree that from them only the former two became Muslim, the latter two did not.

Shaykh Abdul Haq states in Madarij al-Nubuwwah, “Authentic narrations have established the kufr of Abu Tālib.” Shaykh Abdul Haq also states in Sharh Safr al-Sa’adah, “The view of the scholars of Hadith and the Scholars of the Sunnah is that the Iman of Abu Tālib is not proven. Authentic narrations mention that at the time of the death of Abu Tālib, the Messenger of Allah came to him and presented Islam (i.e. asked him to accept Islam) however he did not accept.”

In the popular work, Mirqat Sharh Miskhat, it reads “Abu Tālib died on kufr, and the false claim of some Rafdis that he became a Muslim is baseless.” (Naseem al-Riyad), and According to the Ahl al-Sunnah, Abu Tālib is not a believer.”

When asked directly about Abu Tālib, the Messenger said:

I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) when his uncle, Abu Tālib had been mentioned in his presence, saying, “May be my intercession will help him (Abu Tālib) on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow place in the Fire, with fire reaching his ankles and causing his brain to boil.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 6564

I heard Abbas say: I said: Messenger of Allah, verily Abu Tālib defended you and helped you; would it be beneficial for him? He (the Holy Prophet ﷺ ) said: Yes; I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part.

Sahih Muslim 209 b

Both hadith in the Sahihayn 3 and confirm that he is facing some level of punishment.

Another proof used is the following hadith on inheritance, Muslims cannot inherit from non-Muslims.

Usama b. Zaid b. Haritha said to Allah’s Messenger: “Will you stay in your house at Mecca (which you abandoned at the time of migration)? Thereupon he said: Has Aqil left for as any land or house? And Aqil and Tālib became the Inheritors of Abu Tālib’s (property), and neither Ja’far nor ‘Ali inherited anything from him, for both (Jafar and Ali) were Muslims whereas Aqil and Tālib were non-Muslims.”

[Muslim, 3132]

Hafiz Ibn Katheer further discussed this matter in his authentic work, ‘As Seeratun Nabawiyah (The life of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. In this book (in part 1 pages 210-212) he writes,

When Abu Tālib fell ill, the Quraysh decided to meet him that he might bring about an agreement between them and his nephew, particularly that Hamzah (RA) and Umar (RA) and most of many tribes had become Muslim. They feared that Muslims might overwhelm them.

So, they met him and impressed upon him the urgency to bring them and his nephew closer to each other. He should not criticise them and they would refrain from criticising him. He should not ridicule their religion and they would not ridicule him and his religion.

Abu Tālib summoned Allah’s Messenger and told him of the offer of the Quraysh to agree on a give and take basis. He said, “I only demand of you one Kalimah which will let you rule over all Arabs and non-Arabs.” Abu Jahl interjected, “Not one, but ten kalimahs! We are willing to oblige you for that.’ He said, “Right, say: There is no god but Allah and give up all other gods.” They began to clap and say, ‘O Muhammad! Have you made one God equal to many? Your words are strange indeed.” Then they departed, lamenting, “He is not one to listen to you. Follow your own religion till Allah decides between him and you”.

He said, “My nephew! I don’t think you were unreasonable with them.” These words. gave hope to Allah’s Messenger that Abu Tālib would believe, so he said, “Dear uncle, do say that and because of that, I will be able to intercede for you on the Day of Resurrection.

Abu Tālib said, ‘Nephew! If I did not fear that the Quraysh would mock you and your relatives after me and say that I had believed only out of fear of death then I would have spoken those words. That, only to please you!” When the last moments were before Abu Tālib, Abbas (RA) observed him move his lips. He put his ear close to hear and exclaimed, “O nephew! Abu Tālib has spoken those very words you asked him to say.” Allah’s Messenger (SAS) said: I did not hear. Allah revealed concerning the Quraysh chiefs:

[Say By the Qur’an full of admonition. Nay, those who disbelieve are in vain glory and schism.] (38:1-2)

While writing on this matter, the great scholar Allama Muhammad Idrees Kandlawi has mentioned the following in his famous work Seeratul Mustapha. He writes, ‘It is the unanimous and well established Aqeedah of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah that Abu Tālib died upon disbelief, as it is clearly established from the Quranic verses and Ahadith. Hafiz Turbashti has written that the traditions which speak about the disbelief of Abu Tālib has reached the limit of Tawatur, and this is the Maslak (path) of the Salaf (pious predecessors) and that of the Imams of Islam. The Maslak (path) of the Rawafiz (Shiites) is that Abu Tālib died upon Imaan (faith) and Abu Bakr (R.A) died upon kufr (disbelief). It should be known that for Iman, love and sacrifice is not sufficient. But along with these, testifying to the truth of Prophethood is essential to be a believer. (Seeratul Mustafa vol.1 pg.274).

Other supporting ahadith:

It was narrated that Habbah bin al-`Urani said:I saw `Ali (رضي الله عنه) smiling on the minbar and I never saw him smile more than that, [so broadly that] his eyeteeth appeared. Then he said: I remember what Abu Tālib said. Abu Tālib came to us when I was with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and we were praying in Batn Nakhlah. He said: What are you two doing. O son of mу brother? The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) called him to Islam, but he said: There is nothing wrong with what you are doing (or saying), but by Allah you will never get my buttocks higher than me. And [`Ali] smiled in amazement at what his father said. Then he said: O Allah. I do not know that there is a slave of Yours in this nation who worshipped You before me except Your Prophet – and he said it three times. [Then he said:] I prayed seven years before the people prayed.

Musnad Ahmad 776

It was narrated from Hurman bin Aban that `Uthman bin `Affan (رضي الله عنه) said:I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: `I know a word which no one says, sincerely from the heart, but he will be forbidden to the Fire.” `Umar bin al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) said to him: I will tell you what it is: it is the word of al-ikhlas by means of which Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, caused Muhammad (ﷺ) and his companions to prevail and it is the word of taqwa that the Prophet (ﷺ) of Allah urged his uncle Abu Tālib to say when he was dying, the testimony that there is no god but Allah.

Musnad Ahmad 447

It was narrated from Yahya bin Talha that :his mother Su’da Al-Murriyyah said: “Umar bin Khattab passed by Talhah, after the Messenger of Allah(ﷺ) had died, and said: ‘Why do you look so sad? Are you upset because your cousin has been appointed leader?’ He said: ‘No, but I heard the Messenger of Allah(ﷺ) say: “I know a word which no one says at the time of death but it will be light in his record of deeds, and his body and soul will find comfort in it at the time of death,” -but I did not ask him about it before he died.’ He (‘Umar) said: ‘ I know what it is. It is what he wanted his uncle (Abu Tālib) to say, and if he had known anything that would be more effective in saving him, he would have told him to say it.'”

Sunan Ibn Majah 3795

Im still looking at opinions of greats like Ali Hujwiri, Imam Hussain, Abdul Qadir Jilani and Imam Ghazali. It is also fascinating that Ahmed Raza Khan Brelvi was of the opinion that Abu Tālib died as a kufr. It is evident from his poetry and general views he is a great lover of the Ahle Bayt.

Abu Tālib died with having Imān

Firstly in response to some of the claims above. A question raised is the necessity of shahada at the time of death. It is not necessary to recite the shahada at the time of death but have the belief in the heart. So just because the Prophet ﷺ did not hear him doesn’t necessarily mean he died a mushrik.

Secondly, some claim the hadith of Sa’id bin Al-Musaiyab (Sahih al-Bukhari 1360), although Sahih, is not entirely reliable. Such contentions come from Shii’ scholars but they are worth considering. For example, it is claimed, Sa’id was not born until the earlier years of ‘Umar’s caliphate, and if so, then 23 years stand between his birth and the death of Abu Tālib. Sa’id would have had to been old enough before he could comprehend and remember hadith narrated from his father. It is also only narrated from al-Musayyib and the hadith is quite detailed on what happened during the death of Abu Tālib. Al-Musayyib was also not present at the time.

Thirdly, one must ask why his family members were Muslim but not him? Fatima Bint Asad, the wife of Abu Tālib , was a Muslim, and by some it is claimed she was the second woman to accept Islam. If Abu Tālib was a Mushrik, how could she have remained married to him for 10 years whilst he was a mushrik. A woman may not also be wed to a non Muslim.

Fourthly, some claim such contentions were also raised by the Ummayyads to undermine the Abbasids. At this point the Abbasids were were very close to the Shia, so they tried to discredit the Iman of Abu Tālib to dissuade their claims to caliphate. Later when the Abbasids, who trace their lineage to Al-Abbas, also used this to discredit the Shia and moved away from them. Therefore such proponents hold that the hadith is fabricated or altered to the desire of the caliph.

In the verse where Allah said: Indeed it is not such that you can guide whomever you love, but Allah guides whomever He wills; and He well knows the people upon guidance 28:56. Does this necessarily state Abu Tālib was not guided. The Prophet ﷺ  tried so hard to guide him and get him to proclaim, but maybe Allah had already guided him and knew what’s in his heart. So no matter how hard the Prophet ﷺ  wil try, Abu Tālib will not proclaim externally. and Allah is affirming only he has the power of giving guidance. We human’s cannot force anyone.

Some hold that he was a hanif ,4 like his brother Abdullah. When the Prophet ﷺ was young, he travelled to Syria with his Uncle Abu Tālib on a business trip. They came across a Christian monk named Bahira who told Abu Tālib to protect the Prophet ﷺ  as he would become a Prophet of God. If Abu Tālib had no contentions here and made it is his mission to protect the Messenger of God. Why would he not believe in Allah and his Messenger. His actions spoke louder than his words.

Abu Tālib was known to be a good man and a poet. The collections are contained within Diwan-e-Abu Tālib or Arjah-ul-Matalib. If Abu Tālib was not a Muslim, why would he write such poetry. Here are a few examples:

By the Lord of the temple we will not give up Ahmad,
To harsh misfortunes and times’ troubles,
Before hands and necks, yours and ours,
Are cut by the gleaming blades of Qusas…

And I have found that the religion of Muḥammad
Is the best religion for mankind…

And He derived his name from His Own to exalt him,
For the Possessor of the Throne is Al-Maḥmud and this is Muḥammad…

Did you not know that we have found Muhammad?
A prophet like Moses described in the oldest books,
And that love is bestowed on him [alone] of mankind,
And that none is better than he whom God has singled out in love…

“Let all of the people know that Muhammad is the Vizier of Musa and Isa
He came to us with guidance which Allah had given him
Everyone is guided by their love of Muhammad
Allah has honoured the Prophet Muhammad
And the most honourable of human beings is the Prophet Muhammad
He (Allah) ripped His name Mahmud and brought out (the name) Muhammad

By Allah, they (kuffar) will never reach you, their whole group
Until I have dust completely covering my face!

So go ahead with your mission
You are under my eyes
You invited me and knew I was a guide to you
And you invited me and knew that I was trustworthy of you
And you invited me because you knew that I knew that Islam is the greatest religion in the eye of Allah”

Even if all of the poems cannot be fully authenticated. There is a narration in Al-Bukhari that confirm Abu Tālib was a Prophet ﷺ  and the poem was in praise of the Prophet ﷺ .

My father said, “I heard Ibn Umar reciting the poetic verses of Abu Tālib: And a white (person) (i.e. the Prophet ﷺ ) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows.” Salim’s father (Ibn `Umar) said, “The following poetic verse occurred to my mind while I was looking at the face of the Prophet ﷺ while he was praying for rain. He did not get down till the rain water flowed profusely from every roof-gutter: And a white (person) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows . . . And these were the words of Abu Tālib.”

Bukhari: 122

Other claims made are

  • It is that it is inconceivable that someone who raised and then protected the Prophet ﷺ  in his hardest time will be punished in hell for eternity.
  • Considering there were ayat revealed on moving away from the Kuffar, if he was Kuffar, why didn’t the Prophet ﷺ move on from him.
  • There may not be conclusive evidence that he is Muslim, but no conclusive evidence that he was kafir either. There is no proof of his shirk.. or loyalty to other gods.
  • Jahannam is for disobedient Muslims, and that’s where he is. Maybe because he didn’t proclaim openly from his mouth but always had the belief in his heart. So will be in Jahannam and not in another part of hell for true outright kaafirs.
  • In Sura Duha Allah ﷻ says: “Did he not find you orphan and give you shelter?” (93,6). The Prophet ﷺ lived with Abu Tālib from the age of 8 until he got married at 25. So for most of his youth he was sheltered by Abu Tālib. Did Allah ﷻ shelter him with an enemy of Alah. Certainly not!
  • He performed the Nikkah of the Prophet ﷺ  and Khadija.
  • Abu Ṭālib only hid his faith to protect the Prophet ﷺ  from persecution, which he could only accomplish as a respected chief of Mecca, a social standing that would have been forfeited with a public conversion.
  • In tribal society, allegiance and pride played a part in your legacy and this was ingrained in the tribal leaders. The children or offspring inherit this legacy. So it is possible he did not want to be regarded as outcast by the Quraysh who will in turn turn on his family after him. Especially where the Quraysh had the upper hand, he may have felt Qurays will eventually suppress the Prophet ﷺ.

Rebuttals

Abu Tālib leading the Nikkah of the Prophet ﷺ to Sayyidah Khadijah is not sufficient evidence to prove his Iman. At the time of the nikah of the Prophet ﷺ with Sayyidah Khadijah, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was 25 years old. The Prophet ﷺ announced Prophethood at the age 40, thus the nikah to Sayyidah Khadija was conducted 15 years before the announcement of Prophethood. The rules of Islam were not in place, as Prophethood was not announced and the revelation of the Qur’an had not yet started. Hence, even if a kafir led the nikah, it was correct as it was not forbidden by Islam. In fact, even now, according to the Shari’at, if a kafir prays the Khutbah or conducts the Nikah, as long as the man and woman complete Ijaab and Qabool, and there are a minimum of two witnesses present, the Nikah is complete.

Allama Suhaili, Hafiz Ibn Sayyid An Nas and Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani have stated that the tradition of Abbas (which spoke about the Imān of Abu Tālib) is not correct. The Prophet ﷺ clearly told his uncle Abbas that he did not hear anything. Even if this tradition was sound then it is in opposition to the verses of the Holy Quran and the authentic traditions recorded by Imams Bukhari, Muslim and other scholars of Hadith. This tradition cannot stand as an evidence in front of the well established, famous traditions. In fact, the tradition of Abbas is weak’. (Seeratul Mustafa vol.1 pg.272).

Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat (1:118) says, despite claims to the contrary, it seems that neither al-Qurṭubī (d. 671/1273), Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (d. 771/1370), and al-Shaʿrānī (d. 973/1565), nor Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) argued for the salvation of Abū Ṭālib. He says the scholars only presented an alternative or possible view in their work and not necessarily personally beloved it to be so. For example highlighting what some say about him being resurrected to read the Kalima. Suyuti wrote regarding the Imān of the parents of the Prophet ﷺ , yet not on Abu Tālib ?

If we reject the views of some of the great scholars, does this not call their other viewpoints into question?

Regardless of what the opinion is, Allah is the ultimate Judge and what he wills, he wills – Allah hu Alam

Abu Tālib’s Family

Abu Tālib was married to Fatimah bint Asad. They had four sons:

  • Ṭālib ibn Abī Ṭālib
  • ‘Aqīl ibn Abī Ṭālib
  • Ja’far ibn Abī Ṭālib
  • ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib

and three daughters:

  • Fākhitah bint Abī Ṭālib (Umm Hānī)
  • Jumānah bint Abī Ṭālib
  • Rayta bint Abī Ṭālib (Asma or Umm Talib)

By another wife, Illa, he had a fifth son:

  • Tulayq ibn Abī Ṭālib

The following paper further analyses the Imān of Abu Tālib: Treatises on the Salvation of Abū Ṭālib – Nebil A. Husayn, University of Miami

Footnotes

  1. respected scholars in matters of hadith, fiqh and tafsir.
  2. Thus the year was known as the Year of Sorrow
  3. Accepted books of hadith by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim by consensus
  4. a monotheist believing in Allah alone

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